Photoelectricochemical Solar Cells
Advances in Solar Cell Materials and Storage (ASCMS) Series

Coordinators: Sankir Nurdan Demirci, Sankir Mehmet

Language: Anglais

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480 p. · Hardback
This book provides an overall view of the photoelectrochemical systems for solar hydrogen generation, and new and novel materials for photoelectrochemical solar cell applications. The book is organized in three parts. General concepts and photoelectrochemical systems are covered in Part I. Part II is devoted to photoactive materials for solar hydrogen generation. Main focus of the last part is the photoelectrochemical related systems. This part provides a diverse information about the implementation of multi-junctional solar cells in solar fuel generation systems, dye-sensitized solar hydrogen production and photocatalytic formation of photoactive semiconductors.

Preface

Part I: General Concepts and Photoelectrochemical Systems

1 Photoelectrochemical Reaction Engineering for Solar Fuels Production
Isaac Holmes-Gentle, Faye Alhersh, Franky Bedoya and Klaus Hellgardt

1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 Undeveloped Power of Renewables

1.1.2 Comparison Solar Hydrogen from Different Sources

1.1.3 Economic Targets for Hydrogen Production and PEC Systems

1.1.4 Goals of Using Hydrogen

1.2 Theory and Classification of PEC Systems

1.2.1 Classification Framework for PEC Cell Conceptual Design

1.2.2 Classification Framework for Design of PEC Devices

1.2.3 Integrated Device vs PV + Electrolysis

1.3 Scaling Up of PEC Reactors

1.4 Reactor Designs

1.5 Systems-Level Design

1.6 Outlook

1.6.1 Future Reactor Designs

1.6.1.1 Perforated Designs

1.6.1.2 Membrane-less and Microfluidic Designs

1.6.1.3 Redox-Mediated Systems

1.6.2 Avenues for Future Research

1.6.2.1 Intensification and Waste Heat Utilization

1.6.2.2 Usefulness of Oxidation and Coupled Process with Hydrogen Generation

1.7 Summary and Conclusions

References

2 The Measurements and Efficiency Definition Protocols in Photoelectrochemical Solar Hydrogen Generation
Jingwei Huang and Qizhao Wang

2.1 Introduction

2.2 PEC Measurement

2.2.1 Measurements of Optical Properties

2.2.2 Polarization Curve Measurements

2.2.3 Photocurrent Transients Measurements

2.2.4 IPCE and APCE Measurements

2.2.5 Mott–Schottky Measurements

2.2.6 Measurement (Calculation) of Charge Separation Efficiency

2.2.7 Measurements of Charge Injection Efficiency

2.8 Gas Evolution Measurements

2.3 The Efficiency Definition Protocols in PEC Water Splitting

2.3.1 Solar-to-Hydrogen Conversion Efficiency

2.3.2 Applied Bias Photon-to-Current Efficiency

2.3.3 IPCE and APCE

2.4 Summary

References

3 Photoelectrochemical Cell: A Versatile Device for Sustainable Hydrogen Production
Mohit Prasad, Vidhika Sharma, Avinash Rokade and Sandesh Jadkar

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Photoelctrochemical (PEC) Cells

3.2.1 Solar-to-Hydrogen (STH) Conversion Efficiency

3.2.2 Applied Bias Photon-to-Current Efficiency (ABPE)

3.2.3 External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) or Incident Photon-to-Current Efficiency (IPCE)

3.2.4 Internal Quantum Efficiency (IQE) or Absorbed Photon-to-Current Efficiency (APCE)

3.3 Monometal Oxide Systems for PEC H2 Generation

3.3.1 Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)

3.3.2 Zinc Oxide (ZnO)

3.3.3 Tungsten Oxide (WO3)

3.3.4 Iron Oxide (Fe2O3)

3.3.5 Bismuth Vandate (BiVO4)

3.4 Complex Nanostructures for PEC Splitting of Water

3.4.1 Plasmonic Metal Semiconductor Composite Photoelectrodes

3.4.2 Semiconductor Heterojunctions

3.4.3 Quantum Dots Sensitized Semiconductor Photoelectrodes

3.4.4 Synergistic Effect in Semiconductor Photoelectrodes

3.4.5 Biosensitized Semiconductor Photoelectrodes

3.4.6 Tandem Stand-alone PEC Water-Splitting Device

3.5 Conclusion and Outlook

Acknowledgments

References

4 Hydrogen Generation from Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting
Yanqi Xu, Qian Zhao, Cui Du, Chen Zhou, Huaiguo Xue and Shengyang Yang

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Principle of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen Generation

4.3 Photoeletrode Materials

4.3.1 Photoanode Materials

4.3.1.1 TiO2-Based Photoelectrode

4.3.1.2 BiVO4-Based Photoelectrode

4.3.1.3 α-Fe2O3-Based Photoelectrode

4.3.2 Photocathode Materials

4.3.2.1 Copper-Based Chalcogenides-Based Photoelectrode

4.3.2.2 Silicon-Based Photoelectrode

4.3.2.3 Cu2O-Based Photoelectrode

4.3.2.4 III-V Group Materials

4.3.2.5 CdS-Based Photoelectrode

4.4 Advances in Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen Generation

4.4.1 Monocomponent Catalyst

4.4.2 Functional Cocatalyst

4.4.3 Z-scheme Catalyst

4.5 Pros and cons of photoelectrodes and photocatalysts

4.6 Conclusion and Outlook

Acknowledgments

References

Part II: Photoactive Materials for Solar Hydrogen Generation

5 Hematite Materials for Solar-Driven Photoelectrochemical Cells
Tianyu Liu, Martina Morelli and Yat Li

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Physical Properties of Hematite

5.2.1 Crystal Structure

5.2.2 Optical Properties

5.2.3 Electronic Properties

5.2.4 Band Structure

5.2.5 Overview of Hematite Bottlenecks and Corresponding Strategies

5.2.5.1 Addressing Poor Light Absorption Efficiency

5.2.5.2 Addressing Fast Charge Carrier Recombination

5.2.5.3 Addressing Sluggish Water Oxidation 5.3 Kinetics

5.3 Experimental Strategies to Enhance the Photoactivity of Hematite

5.3.1 Nanostructuring

5.3.1.1 Direct Synthesis

5.3.1.3 In Situ Structural Transformation

5.3.1.4 “Locking” Nanostructures

5.3.2 Doping

5.3.2.1 Oxygen Vacancies

5.3.2.2 Foreign Ion Doping

5.3.3 Construction of Heterojunctions

5.3.3.1 Semiconducting Overlayers

5.3.3.2 Sensitization and Tandem Cells

5.3.3.3 OER Catalysts

5.3.3.4 Engineering of Current Collectors

5.4 Fundamental Characteristics of the PEC Behaviors of Hematite

5.4.1 Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

5.4.2 Effects of Morphology

5.4.3 Effect of Doping

5.4.3.1 Oxygen (O) Vacancies

5.4.3.2 n-type Dopants

5.4.3.3 p-type Dopants

5.4.3.4 Isovalent Dopants

5.4.3.5 Multiple Dopants

5.4.4 Effect of Water Oxidation Catalysts

5.4.4.1 Mechanism of Uncatalyzed Water Oxidation

5.4.4.2 Mechanism of Catalyzed Water Oxidation

5.4.5 Effect of Heterojunctions

5.4.5.1 Facilitating Charge Separation and Transfer

5.4.5.2 Surface Passivation

5.4.5.3 Back-contact Engineering

5.5 Summary

References

6 Design of Bismuth Vanadate-Based Materials: New Advanced Photoanodes for Solar Hydrogen Generation
Olivier Monfort, Panagiotis Lianos and Gustav Plesch

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Photoanodes in Photoelectrochemical Processes

6.3 Bismuth Vanadate (BiVO4)

6.3.1 Structure and Properties of BiVO4

6.3.2 Synthesis of BiVO4

6.3.3 Applications of BiVO4 Materials

6.4 BiVO4 as Photoanode for Solar Hydrogen Generation

6.4.1 Optimization of the Photoanode

6.4.1.1 Photoanode Preparation

6.4.1.2 Choice of the Electrolyte

6.4.2 Solar Hydrogen Generation by Water Splitting

6.5 Modified BiVO4 Photoanodes

6.5.1 Transition Metal-Modified BiVO4

6.5.1.1 Generalities

6.5.1.2 Nb-modified BiVO4

6.5.2 BiVO4 Composites

6.5.2.1 Generalities

6.5.2.2 BiVO4/TiO2 Composite

6.6 Conclusion

6.7 Acknowledgments

References

7 Copper-Based Chalcopyrite and Kesterite Materials for Solar Hydrogen Generation
Cigdem Tuc Altaf, Nazrin Abdullayeva and Nurdan Demirci Sankir

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Chalcopyrite I-III-VI2 Semiconductors

7.2.1 Material Properties

7.2.2 Synthesis Techniques of Chalcopyrite CuInS/Se2 Nanocrystals

7.2.2.1 Hot-Injection Method

7.2.2.2 Heat-Up (Noninjection) Method

7.2.2.3 Thermal Decomposition Method

7.2.2.4 Solvothermal Method

7.2.2.5 Microwave Treatment Method

7.2.3 Chalcopyrite CuInS/Se2 Thin-Film Fabrication Methods

7.2.3.1 Vacuum-Based Techniques

7.2.3.2 Nonvacuum Techniques

7.2.4 Applications in Photoelectrochemical Cells

7.3 Cu-Based Kesterite (I2-II-IV-VI4) Semiconductors

7.3.1 Material Properties

7.3.2 Synthesis Techniques of Kesterite Cu2ZnSnS/Se4 Nanocrystals

7.3.2.1 Hot-Injection Method

7.3.2.2 Solvothermal/Hydrothermal Method

7.3.2.3 Microwave-Assisted Chemical Synthesis

7.3.2.4 Additional Novel Approaches to CZTS Nanocrystal Syntheses

7.3.3 Kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin-Film Fabrication Methods

7.3.3.1 Vacuum-based Techniques

7.3.3.2 Nonvacuum Techniques

7.3.4 Applications in Photoelectrochemical Cells

7.4 Concluding Remarks

References

8 Eutectic Composites for Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells (PSCs)
J. Sar, K. Kolodziejak, K. Wysmulek, K. Orlinski, A. Kusior, M. Radecka, A. Trenczek-Zajac, K. Zakrzewska and D.A. Pawlak

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The Photoelectrolysis of Water as a Source of Hydrogen

8.3 Experimental Methods for Studying Photoactive Materials Such as Electrochemical (Mott–Schottky Plots) and Photoelectrochemical Determination of the Flat-Band Potential, Impedance Spectroscopy, and Bandgap by Optical Spectroscopy

8.4 Eutectic Composites

8.5 Methods of Obtaining Eutectic Composites

8.6 Eutectic Composites used for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

8.7 Other Potential Eutectic Composites

8.8 Modification of the Properties of Eutectic Composites

8.9 Conclusions

References

Part III: Photoelectrochemical Related Systems

9 Implementation of Multijunction Solar Cells in Integrated Devices for the Generation of Solar Fuels
V. Smirnov, K. Welter, F. Finger, F. Urbain, J.R. Morante, B. Kaiser and W. Jaegermann

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Multijunction Solar Cells as Photoelectrodes

9.3 PV-EC Devices Based on Multijunction Solar Cells

9.4 Promising Device Designs, Future Prospects

9.5 Summary and Conclusions

References

10 Photoelectrochemical Cells: Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Go Kawamura, Pascal Nbelayim, Wai Kian Tan and Atsunori Matsuda

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Brief History of Solar Cells to DSSCs

10.3 Structure, Components, and Working Principle of the DSSC

10.3.1 The Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO) Substrate

10.3.2 The Hole Blocking Layer (HBL)

10.3.3 The Photoanode

10.3.4 The Sensitizer/Dye

10.3.5 The HTM/Electrolyte

10.3.6 The CE

10.3.7 Electron Kinetics in an Active DSSC

10.4 Characterization Techniques for DSSCs

10.4.1 Computational Modeling

10.4.2 Morphological and Structural Studies

10.4.2.1 Electron Microscopy

10.4.2.2 X-Ray Diffraction

10.4.3 Dye Adsorption.

10.4.4 Spectroscopic Techniques

10.4.4.1 Optical (UV–Vis) Spectroscopy

10.4.4.2 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

10.4.4.3 FTIR Spectroscopy

10.4.4.4 Raman Spectroscopy

10.4.4.5 Material Composition

10.4.5 Electromagnetic Measurements

10.4.5.1 Hall Effect Measurement

10.4.5.2 Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Analysis

10.4.6 (Photo-)Electrochemical Measurements

10.4.6.1 Photovoltaic Properties

10.4.6.2 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

10.4.6.3 Electron Transport

10.4.6.4 Electron Lifetime

10.4.6.5 Electron Concentration

10.4.6.6 Flat-band Potential

10.4.6.7 Charge Collection Efficiency

10.5 Plasmonic DSSCs

10.6 Dye-Sensitized Solar Hydrogen Production

10.7 Applications and Future Outlook of DSSC

10.8 Academic

References

11 Photocatalytic Formation of Composite Electrodes for Semiconductor-Sensitized Solar Cells
Oleksandr Stroyuk, Andriy Kozytskiy and Stepan Kuchmiy

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Photocatalytic Deposition of Metal Sulfide Nanoparticles on the Surface of Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors

11.2.1 Photodeposition of Cadmium Sulfide NPs

11.2.2 Photocatalytic Deposition of Lead Sulfide

11.2.3 Photocatalytic Deposition of Silver Sulfide

11.2.4 Photodeposition of Antimony Sulfide

11.2.5 Photocatalytic Deposition of Molybdenum and Tungsten Sulfides

11.2.6 Photocatalytic Deposition of Copper Sulfide

11.3 Photocatalytic Deposition of Metal Selenides

11.4 Conclusion and Outlook

References

Index

Nurdan Demirci Sankir is currently an Associate Professor in the Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering Department at the TOBB University of Economics and Technology (TOBB ETU), Ankara, Turkey. She received her M.Eng and PhD degrees in Materials Science and Engineering from the Virginia Polytechnic and State University, USA in 2005. Nurdan has actively carried out research and consulting activities in the areas of photovoltaic devices, solution based thin film manufacturing, solar driven water splitting, photocatalytic degradation and nanostructured semiconductors.

Mehmet Sankir received his PhD in Macromolecular Science and Engineering from the Virginia Polytechnic and State University, USA in 2005. Dr. Sankir is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Ankara, Turkey and group leader of Advanced Membrane Technologies Laboratory. Dr. Sankir has actively carried out research and consulting activities in the areas of membranes for fuel cells, flow batteries, hydrogen generation and desalination.