Biopolymers represent the most abundant organic compounds in the biosphere and constitute the largest fraction of cells. Seven main classes of biopolymers are distinguished according to their chemical structures. This encyclopedia provides a throughout overview of the occurrence and metabolism of biopolymers. In addition, processes for biotechnological production, isolation from organisms and modification, material properties and technical applications in various areas such as, for example, in daily life products, medicine, pharmacy, food industry, agriculture, textiles, chemical industry and packaging industry are provided. The future perspectives of biopolymers are outlined. This volume addresses general aspects of biopolymers such as methods for the analysis of polymer properties and technical processing of biopolymers. It also provides an overview of special applications in the following areas : electronics, aerospace, medicine and pharmacy, food, packaging, construction engineering, etc. Further topics included are : biotechnological production of monomers for chemical polymer synthesis, conversion of raw materials corrosion, composting, environmental impacts, health issues, legal, ecological and economic aspects.