The lifestyles and socio-economic status that are prevalent in regions of the world with limited resources form the background for the unique features of neoplastic diseases in these areas, where the majority of the world population lives. The predominance of the world?s retroviral burden of in these areas further compounds the nature and challenges of the cancer there. Much of the international cancer literature covers the nature and challenges of the disease as seen in high-income regions of the world, thereby giving a skewed view of the global cancer challenges. As the low- and middle-income regions of the world transition from communicable to non communicable disease patterns, there is a need for a corresponding paradigm shift, with increased emphasis on what the world needs to know about non communicable diseases, including cancer, where the disease is hitherto poorly documented. The main goal of the proposed book is to contribute to this outcomes.