John S. Reach, Jr., MSc, MD, FAAOS, is Associate Professor of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation and Director of the Foot and Ankle Section at Yale School of Medicine in New Haven, CT. James J. Yue, MD, is co-chief of the orthopaedic spine surgery section at the Yale School of Medicine. He is director of the Yale Spine Fellowship as well as the lead surgeon for motion sparing as well as endoscopic spine surgery. He has been the Principal Investigator/Co-Investigator on a number of FDA and non FDA clinical trials for disc replacement and endoscopic spine surgery. He is the Chair of the Education Committee for the International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery and IITTSS spine society. Deepak Narayan, MD, is a Professor of Surgery at the Yale University School of Medicine in New Haven, CT. He is also the Chief of Plastic Surgery at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in West Haven, CT. In addition to a busy clinical practice he is actively involved in research and has a special interest in postoperative pain. Alan David Kaye, MD, PhD, DABA, DABIPP, DABPM, FASA, is the Tenured Professor, Program Director, and Chairman of the Department of Anesthesiology at LSU Health Sciences Center in New Orleans since 2005. He received two BS degrees and a MD degree from the University of Arizona. Dr. Kaye also completed his PhD in pharmacology at Tulane School of Medicine. Dr. Kaye has been awarded top doctors honors in the fields of anesthesiology and pain management. Nalini Vadivelu, MD, graduated from Medical school in Christian Medical college, Vellore, India, and completed her Anesthesiology Residency in the University of Southern California. She completed her Pain Management Fellowship in Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York. She has been working as faculty at Yale University since 2002.