Introduction and general aspects. Free sugars. Glycosides. Oligosaccharides. Ethers and anhydro-sugars. Acetals. Esters. Halogeno-sugars. Amino-sugars. Miscellaneous nitrogen derivatives. Thio-sugars. Deoxy-sugars. Unsaturated derivatives. Branched-chain sugars. Aldosuloses and other dicarbonyl compounds. Sugar acids and lactones. Inorganic derivatives. Alditols and cyclitols. Antibiotics. Nucleosides. NMR spectroscopy and conformational features. Other physical methods. Separatory and analytical methods. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure non-carbohydrate compounds.