I. THE CONTEXT, BIRTH, AND EARLY GROWTH OF CHRISTIANITY. 1. From Alexander to Augustus: Cultural and Political Challenge to Jewish Religious Identity. 2. Jesus of Nazareth and the Radical Alternative for Redefining the Covenant. 3. Paul: Christian Encounter with the Roman World. 4. From Charismatic Movement to Institution. 5. Challenges to Christianity from Roman Culture. 6. Christian Responses to the Challenges from the Culture. 7. The Challenge from Within Christianity. 8. Conflict of Church and Empire. II. THE CHRISTIAN EMPIRE AND THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES. 9. The Christian Empire and Arianism. 10. Pagan Reaction and Christian Victory. 11. West and East After the Fall. 12. The Eastern Empire and the Struggle Against Islam. 13. The Early Medieval Church in the West. 14. The Flowering of Medieval Christendom. III. THE LATE MIDDLE AGES AND THE REFORMATION. 15. The Bloom of the Twelfth Century. 16. The Harvest of the Medieval Church. 17. The Haywain, or All Flesh is Grass: The Withering of the Medieval Bloom. 18. The Reformations of the Sixteenth Century. 19. The Radical Reformers. 20. The Most Perfect School of Christ: The Genevan Reformation. 21. The Protestant Mission and Evangelism: The International Conspiracy. 22. Catholic Renewal and the Counter-Reformation. IV. EUROPEAN CHRISTIANITY CONFRONTS THE MODERN AGE. 23. The Confessional Era. 24. From Pietism to the Early Enlightenment. 25. The Church in the Nineteenth Century. 26. Church History and Theology Since World War I. V. CHRISTIANITY AND CULTURE IN AMERICA. 27. The New England Way. 28. The Southern and Middle Colonies. 29. The Great Awakening. 30. Wars and Revolution. 31. The Second Great Awakening. 32. The Churches and Slavery. 33. An American Roman Catholic Church. 34. Sentimentality and Science. 35. Responses to the City. 36. Modernism and Fundamentalism. 37. Religion in the Public Sphere, 1945—1996. 38. Discordant Voices: Christianity in America Since 1945. VI. CHRISTIANITY IN THE WIDER WORLD. 39. Christendom and Colonization. 40. Mission in the Modern Era. 41. World Christianity in the Twentieth Century. Selected Bibliography. Index.