Acknowledgements. Introduction. PART ONE: Input, interaction, and negotiation. 1. Communicating inside and outside the classroom. Introduction. 'Teacher Talk'. - Activity: Giving explanations. 'Learner talk'. Terms for 'negotiation'. Comprehension. - Complexity of comprehension. - Comprehension and foreign language development. Summary. - Suggestions for further reading. 2. Simplicity and accessibility. - Activity: Beyond the text. Comprehension resources. Non-linguistic simplification. - Context. - Background knowledge. - Activity. Simple = accessible?. Simplifying texts. Explanation. Accessible versus noticeable. Summary. - Suggestions for further reading. 3. Teacher Talk. - Activity: The hat seller. Input modifications. Interaction modifications. - Activity. Modifications of information choice. - Descriptive detail. Logical links. Assumed socio-cultural gaps. Implications for classroom practice. Summary. - Suggestions for further reading. 4. Modification research: findings and implications. Problems of measurement. - Activity: What do students understand?. Effects on comprehension. - Input modifications. - Interaction modifications. Modifications of information choice. Effects on learning. - Implications for classroom practice. Summary. - Suggestions for further reading. PART TWO: Classroom applications - interaction-based teaching. Introduction. 5. Teaching listening. - Activity: Spoken language. Problem-solving strategies. - Paused listening tasks. Types of listening. Grading. - Interaction-based grading. Summary. - Suggestions for further reading. 6. Teaching speaking. - Activity: Questions in class. Teacher-learner interaction. Learner-learner interaction. Setting up negotiation tasks. - Introducing negotiation. - Grouping. - Distributing the information. Feedback. - Teacher-learner feedback. - Learner-learner feedback. - Combining learner and teacher feedback. Summary. - Suggestions for further reading. 7. Teaching reading. - Activity: A difficult text. Choice of texts: authenticity. Interaction with texts. - Think-aloud interpretation. - Reciprocal teaching. - Modifying a text. Interaction about texts. - Question-setting. Summary. - Suggestions for further reading. 8. Teaching writing. Writing as interaction. - Decomposition. Classroom writing: the role of the reader. Classroom writing: the role of the teacher. - Activity: A writing lesson. Feedback during writing. - Learner-initiated feedback. Feedback after writing. - Clarification requests. Summary. - Suggestions for further reading. 9. Postscript. Four reasons for not changing anything. 'We don't have the resources'. 'Our classes are too large for interaction'. 'Our students don't expect to be taught that way'. 'We haven't been trained to teach like this'alt,br /agt,. Glossary. Bibliography. Index.