Critical Levels in the Development of Natural Systems


Language: Anglais
Cover of the book Critical Levels in the Development of Natural Systems

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This book deals with general quantitative regularities of the alteration of evolutionary and reconstruction (critical) periods of development. An equation and a model of development are introduced which generalize a wide range of commonly accepted models, allowing the analysis of the characteristics of processes occurring on different structural levels of natural system organization. On the basis of this model, a hierarchy of critical constants has been established, applicable to, for example, geological history, cyclicity in the individual development of animals, structures of population and ecological systems, as well as to the perception of acoustical signals by man.
1 The Problem of Critical Levels in the Development of Systems.- 1.1 Biological Systems and Hierarchical Levels of Their Integration.- 1.2 On the Correlation of Evolution and Leaps in Development.- 1.3 Critical Levels in the Development of Complex Systems.- 2 Model of Systems Development.- 2.1 Developmental Equation.- 2.2 The Communication of the Developmental Equation with Main Models of Experimental Data Processing.- 2.3 Hierarchy of Developmental Processes.- 3 Model of Critical Level Constants in System Development.- 3.1 Some Peculiarities of the Development Equation.- 3.2 Critical Levels of Allometric Development.- 3.3 Critical Levels in Exponential Growth Models.- 3.4 Hierarchy of Critical Constants.- 3.5 Synchronization of Critical Boundaries of Different Hierarchical Levels.- 4 Critical Levels of Temporal Characteristics of Systems.- 4.1 Periodization of Critical Boundaries in the Development of the Earth’s Crust.- 4.2 Temporal Rhythmicity of the Solar System.- 4.3 Synchronization Rhythms of Motions of the Earth and Other Solar System Bodies.- 4.4 Critical Age Periods in the Individual Development of Animals.- 4.5 Rhythms in Human Perception of Acoustic Signals.- 5 Critical Levels of the Spatial Characteristics of Systems.- 5.1 Distances of Planets from the Sun and the Problem of Basic Variables.- 5.2 Discretion of Size Distribution and the Development of Natural Systems.- 5.3 Estimation of Size Ranges of Organismic Structures.- 5.4 Critical Levels in Size Characteristics of Animal Ontogenesis.- 6 Critical Levels in the Structure of Populations and Ecological Systems.- 6.1 Studies of Population Hierarchy.- 6.2 Critical Abundances of Populations.- 6.3 Analysis of Data on Population Dynamics.- 6.4 Species Structure of Marine Ecosystems.- 7 General Problems of the Study of Critical Levels in the Processes of Development of Systems.- References.