The world (2nd ed )
Author: FERNANDEZ-ARMESTO FelipeLanguage: Anglais
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1152 p. · 22.9x27.3 cm · Hardback
The Worldinterweaves two stories-of our interactions with nature and with each other. The environment-centered story is about humans distancing themselves from the rest of nature and searching for a relationship that strikes a balance between constructive and destructive exploitation. The culture-centered story is of how human cultures have become mutually influential and yet mutually differentiating. Both stories have been going on for thousands of years. We do not know whether they will end in triumph or disaster.
There is no prospect of covering all of world history in one book. Rather, the fabric of this book is woven from selected strands. Readers will see these at every turn, twisted together into yarn, stretched into stories. Human-focused historical ecology-the environmental theme-will drive readers back, again and again, to the same concepts: sustenance, shelter, disease, energy, technology, art. (The last is a vital category for historians, not only because it is part of our interface with the rest of the world, but also because it forms a record of how we see reality and of how the way we see it changes.) In the global story of human interactions-the cultural theme-we return constantly to the ways people make contact with each another: migration, trade, war, imperialism, pilgrimage, gift exchange, diplomacy, travel-and to their social frameworks: the economic and political arenas, the human groups and groupings, the states and civilizations, the sexes and generations, the classes and clusters of identity.
Getting the Most Out of the Maps in The World
About Felipe Fernßndez-Armesto
From the Author to the Reader
Introducing The World
A Note on Dates and Spelling
Part 1: Foragers and Farmers, to 5000 B.C.E.
Chapter 1: Out of the Ice: Peopling the Earth
SO YOU THINK YOU'RE HUMAN?
OUT OF AFRICA
Peopling the Old World
Migration, Population, and Social Change
THE LAST GREAT ICE AGE
Ice-Age Culture and Society
Peopling the New World
SURVIVAL OF THE FORAGERS
IN PERSPECTIVE: After the Ice
Chapter 2: Out of the Mud: Farming and Herding after the Ice Age
THE PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURE
A Case in Point: Aboriginal Australians
The Disadvantages of Farming
HUSBANDRY IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
THE SPREAD OF AGRICULTURE
The Pacific Islands
SO WHY DID FARMING START?
The Outcome of Abundance
The Power of Politics
Agriculture by Accident
Production As an Outgrowth of Procurement
A Conservative Revolution?
IN PERSPECTIVE: Seeking Stability
PART 1: THE BIG PICTURE THE WORLD IN 5000 B.C.E.
Part 2: Farmers and Builders, 5000 to 500 B.C.E.
Chapter 3: The Great River Valleys: Accelerating Change and Developing States
GROWING COMMUNITIES, DIVERGENT CULTURES
Intensified Settlement and Its Effects
THE ECOLOGY OF CIVILIZATION
THE GREAT FLOODPLAINS
The Ecology of Egypt
Shifting Rivers of the Indus Valley
Fierce Nature in Early Mesopotamia
The Good Earth of Early China
CONFIGURATIONS OF SOCIETY
Patterns of Settlement and Labor
The Egyptian State
Statecraft in Mesopotamia
The First Documented Chinese State
Ruling the Harappan World
The Politics of Expansion
IN PERSPECTIVE: What Made the Great River Valleys Different?
Chapter 4: A Succession of Civilizations: Ambition and Instability
THE GROWTH OF TRADE
The Rise of the Hittites
Fragility and Fall: The End of Hatti
INSTABILITY AND COLLAPSE IN THE AEGEAN
A GENERAL CRISIS IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN WORLD?
The Egyptian Experience
The Roots of Instability
THE EXTINCTION OF HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION
The Evidence of the Rig Veda
The Environment of Stress...