World in transition: ways towards sustainable management of freshwater resources : annual report 1997, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1999
Annual Report 1997

Coll. World in Transition, Vol. 1997

Language: Français
Cover of the book World in transition: ways towards sustainable management of freshwater resources : annual report 1997

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Ways Towards Sustainable Management of Freshwater Resources
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393 p. · 21x27.9 cm · Paperback

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World in transition: ways towards sustainable management of freshwater resources : annual report 1997
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392 p. · 27.9x20.3 cm · Hardback
In this annual report, the German Government's Advisory Council on Global Change presents an analysis of specific regions that are affected by water shortages. Based on this research, explicit recommendations for future research and for political action are presented.
A Executive Summary.- 1 Summary of individual chapters.- 2 Key recommendations for action.- B Introduction.- 1 Introduction.- C Five years after the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro.- 1 Introduction.- 2 International policymaking in response to Global Change.- 2.1 Atmosphere.- 2.1.1 The Montreal Protocol.- 2.1.2 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.- 2.2 Hydrosphere.- 2.2.1 Protection of the Seas from Land-based Pollution.- 2.2.2 Overfishing.- 2.2.3 The International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea in Hamburg.- 2.3 Biosphere.- 2.3.1 Convention on Biological Diversity.- 2.3.2 Intergovernmental Panel on Forests.- 2.3.3 Negotiations on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.- 2.4 Lithosphere/Pedosphare.- 2.5 Population.- 2.5.1 UN Conference for Population and Development (Cairo).- 2.6 Social organization.- 2.6.1 United Nations World Conference on Women (Beijing).- 2.6.2 United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II).- 2.6.3 World Conference on Human Rights.- 2.7 Economy.- 2.7.1 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade / World Trade Organization.- 2.7.2 United Nations World Food Summit (Rome).- 2.7.3 United Nations World Summit for Social Development (Copenhagen).- 3 Local government implementation of AGENDA 21.- 3.1 Importance of local-level political processes for sustainable development.- 3.2 The LOCAL AGENDA 21 concept.- 3.2.1 Local government participation in the LA21 process.- 3.2.2 LA21 activities - an international comparison.- 3.2.3 LA21 initiatives in Germany.- 3.2.4 Towards sustainability with LA21 - Potentials and barriers.- 4 Summary and prospects.- D Focus: Water.- 1 The freshwater crisis: Basic elements.- 1.1 Water functions.- 1.1.1 Natural functions.- Life-sustaining function.- Habitat function.- Regulatory functions.- 1.1.2 Cultural functions.- 1.2 Water as habitat and its importance for neighboring environments.- 1.2.1 Standing waters.- 1.2.2 Running waters.- 1.2.3 Soil and groundwater.- 1.2.4 Wetlands.- 1.2.5 Biodiversity of limnic ecosystems.- 1.2.6 Recommended action and research.- 1.3 The hydrological cycle.- 1.3.1 Water balance.- 1.3.2 The hydrological cycle in the atmospheric energy balance.- 1.3.3 Interactions with the atmosphere.- Radiation, water vapor and clouds.- Atmospheric chemistry and aerosols.- Cryosphere and ocean.- Vegetation in arid and semi-arid regions.- 1.3.4 Interactions with vegetation.- Impacts on water balance.- Impacts on water quality.- 1.3.5 Model: hydrological cycle in the present and future.- Comparison between observations and simulations of present climate.- Simulated changes in the hydrological cycle under C02 doubling.- 1.4 Current and future water withdrawals by agriculture, industry and for domestic use.- 1.4.1 Definitions and data situation.- 1.4.2 Present rates of water withdrawal.- 1.4.3 Future withdrawal trends.- 1.5 Water quality.- 1.5.1 Inventorying of water quality.- Precipitation.- Surface waters.- Groundwater.- Monitoring water quality.- 1.5.2 Water quality standards.- Drinking water.- Water in agricultural production.- 1.5.3 Recommended research and action.- 1.6 Water and disasters.- 1.6.1 Introduction.- Flood damage trends.- From heavy rains to flood damage.- 1.6.2 Classification of different flood types.- 1.6.3 Effects of climate change on floods.- Observed precipitation and runoff trends.- Other possible changes to flood hydrology due to climate change.- Modeling.- 1.6.4 Management and control of flood risks.- Determination of flood risks.- Managing flood risks.- 1.6.5 Research recommendations.- 2 Water in the global network of interrelations - the causal web.- 2.1 Trends in the hydrosphere.- 2.2 Global mechanisms of the water crisis.- 2.2.1 Impacts on hydrosphere trends.- 2.2.2 Effects of hydrosphere trends on other spheres.- 3 Global water problems and their causes.- 3.1 The criticality index as a measure of the regional importance of the water crisis.- 3.1.1 Modeling withdrawal trends.- 3.1.2 Modeling water availability.- 3.1.3 Water-specific problem-solving capacity.- 3.1.4 Formulation of a criticality assessment.- 3.2 Syndromes as causal webs of relevance to the water crisis.- 3.2.1 Relevance of individual syndromes for water resources.- 3.2.2 Systematic ranking of the syndromes.- 3.3 The Green Revolution Syndrome: Environmental degradation through the introduction of inappropriate farming methods.- 3.3.1 Definition.- Description.- Major features.- 3.3.2 General description of the syndrome.- Syndrome mechanism.- Syndrome intensity, indicators.- Syndrome linkages and interactions.- General recommendations for action.- 3.3.3 Water-specific syndrome description.- Water-specific syndrome mechanism.- Water-specific network of interrelations.- Water-specific recommendations.- 3.4 The Aral Sea Syndrome: environmental degradation due to large-scale damage to natural landscapes.- 3.4.1 Definition.- 3.4.2 Water-specific syndrome mechanism.- Core trends at the people-environment interface.- Driving factors.- Impacts on the ecosphere.- Impacts on the anthroposphere.- Syndrome coupling.- 3.4.3 Examples.- Aral Sea.- The Three Gorges project.- 3.4.4 Indirect measurement of syndrome intensity.- Measurement of the core trend “changes in surface runoff”.- Measuring vulnerability.- Intensity.- 3.4.5 Recommended action.- Reducing the disposition to the Aral Sea Syndrome.- Evaluation of large-scale water development projects.- Mitigating the impacts of existing large-scale water development projects.- 3.4.6 Research recommendations.- 3.5 The Favela Syndrome: Uncontrolled urbanization, impoverishment and threats to water resources and the environment in human settlements.- 3.5.1 Definition.- 3.5.2 General syndrome diagnosis.- Rural exodus, decline of traditions and uncontrolled urbanization.- Failure of governance, growing significance of the informal sector and exclusion.- 3.5.3 Water-specific syndrome description.- Disparities between withdrawal and supply.- Water pollution and eutrophication.- Lack of infrastructure and its consequences.- Water-specific threats to human health.- Water-centered network of interrelations.- Dynamic measure of intensity of the Favela Syndrome.- 3.5.4 Syndrome cure.- General recommendations for action.- Water-specific recommendations for action.- 4 Key issues.- 4.1 International conflicts.- 4.1.1 Basic elements of conflict analysis.- 4.1.2 Pathways to conflict management.- 4.1.3 Regional water conflicts.- The Ataturk Dam on the Tigris-Euphrates.- The Jordan basin.- The Gabcikovo Dam on the River Danube.- The Great Lakes in North America.- 4.1.4 Degradation of freshwater resources as a global problem.- Regional water conflicts as a threat to world security.- Freshwater resources as part of the world natural heritage.- Inland waters and marine pollution.- The “human right to water”.- 4.1.5 Summary.- 4.2 Spread of waterborne diseases.- 4.2.1 Diseases related to water use.- Use of contaminated drinking water.- Water-based hosts and carriers of infectious diseases.- 4.2.2 Trends in the spread of waterborne infections.- 4.2.3 Need for action and recommendations.- 4.3 Water and food.- 4.3.1 Historical background.- 4.3.2 Population growth and food.- 4.3.3 Food and water consumption: current situation and a look into the future.- 4.3.4 Recommended action.- 4.3.5 Research recommendations.- 4.4 Degradation of freshwater ecosystems and neighboring habitats.- 4.4.1 Salinization and desiccation.- 4.4.2 Acidification.- 4.4.3 Eutrophication and pollution.- 4.4.4 Introduction of non-native species.- 4.4.5 Overfishing of inland waters 243.- 4.4.6 Declining area and quality of inland waterbodies due to direct intervention.- 4.4.7 Impacts of the loss and degradation of wetlands.- 4.4.8 Recommended research and action.- 4.5 Water technologies: Basic principles and trends.- 4.5.1 Water supply.- Water collection.- Water distribution.- Water treatment.- 4.5.2 Water use.- 4.5.3 Water disposal.- Water collection and transport.- Water purification.- 4.5.4 Development trends and research needs.- 4.5.5 Recommended action.- 5 Solutions to the global water crisis.- 5.1 Guidelines for the “sound management of water resources”.- 5.1.1 The guiding principle developed by the Council.- 5.1.2 Normative guidelines for sound management of water resources.- 5.1.3 The model as reflected in recent trends in the fields of international resource policy and international law.- 5.2 Sociocultural and individual conditions for water resource management.- 5.2.1 Water cultures: Sociocultural contexts of water resource management.- The scientific and technological dimension.- The economic dimension.- The legal and administrative dimension.- The religious dimension.- The symbolic and esthetic dimension.- 5.2.2 Water scarcity and behavior.- 5.2.3 Water pollution and behavior.- 5.3 Principles and instruments of sustainable water management: Environmental education and public discourse.- 5.3.1 Environmental education activities aimed at sound management of water resources.- 5.3.2 Communication and discourse.- Bases of discursive communication.- Communicative forms of orientation.- Implementation and application of discursive procedures.- 5.3.3 Recommendations.- 5.4 Economic approaches to the sustainable management of water resources.- 5.4.1 Special characteristics of water.- Multifunctionality and the diverse valuation of water resources.- Divergent properties of water as an economic commodity.- The regional character of most water problems.- Growing importance of water efficiency.- 5.4.2 Solving the allocation problem.- Basic options.- Water markets as the solution.- Securing minimum water requirements.- 5.4.3 Water resource management in Germany and the USA - a comparison.- Preliminary remarks.- Water resource management in Germany.- Water resource management in the USA.- 5.4.4 Recommendations.- 5.5 Legal principles and instruments pertaining to water resource management.- 5.5.1 Introduction.- 5.5.2 Water resource management in Germany.- Legal regulation of water utilization in Germany.- Public supply of drinking water.- 5.5.3 International water law.- Rules of general international law regarding the use of transboundary watercourses.- Recent treaties at regional level.- Progress in the work of the International Law Association.- UN Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses.- 5.5.4 Strengthening international mechanisms for the prevention of conflicts.- 5.5.5 Intensifying international cooperation for the protection of freshwater resources.- “Global Consensus” on freshwater resources.- Functions.- Possible institutional arrangements.- Summary.- 5.6 Instruments.- 5.6.1 Preservation of valuable biotopes (World Heritage).- 5.6.2 Water supply and wastewater disposal.- 5.6.3 Health.- 5.6.4 Irrigation and food.- 5.6.5 Disaster prevention and control.- 5.6.6 Resolving conflicts at national and international level.- E Recommendations.- 1 Key recommendations for research on freshwater resources.- 1.1 Sectoral analysis of the system as a whole.- 1.2 Specification and application of the guiding principle.- 1.3 Specific applications of the guiding principle.- 1.4 Integrated system analysis.- 2 Key recommendations for policy action on water resources.- 2.1 Elements of a global water strategy.- 2.2 Specification of the paradigm.- 2.3 Compliance with and application of the model.- 2.4 Selected key recommendations for preventing a worldwide freshwater crisis.- F References.- G Glossary.- H The German Advisory Council on Global Change.- I Index.
Interdisciplinary source of reference for freshwater resources