Three Dimensional Integration of Semiconductors, 1st ed. 2015
Processing, Materials, and Advanced Applications

Coordinators: Kondo Kazuo, Kada Morihiro, Takahashi Kenji

Language: Anglais

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Three-Dimensional Integration of Semiconductors
Publication date:
408 p. · 15.5x23.5 cm · Paperback

158.24 €

In Print (Delivery period: 15 days).

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Three Dimensional Interconnects
Publication date:
408 p. · 15.5x23.5 cm · Hardback

This book starts with background concerning three-dimensional integration including their low energy consumption and high speed image processing and then proceeds to how to construct them and which materials to use in particular situations. The book covers numerous applications, including next generation smart phones, driving assistance systems, capsule endoscopes, homing missiles, and many others. The book concludes with recent progress and developments in three dimensional packaging, as well as future prospects.

Chapter 1 - Research and Development History of Three Dimensional (3D) Integration Technology 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors 1.1.2 Three-dimensional Integration Technology 1.2 Motivation for 3D Integration Technology y 1.3 Research and Development History of 3D Integration Technology R&D History of 3D Packaging Technology 1.3.1 3D Packaging Technology 1.3.2 Origin of the TSV Concept 1.3.3 Research and Development History of 3D Technology in Organizations Japan Japanese 3D Integration Technology Research and Development Project (Dream Chip) USA Europe Asia International 1.4 Research and Development History of 3D Integration Technology for Applications 1.4.1 CMOS Image Sensor and MEMS 1.4.2 DRAM 1.4.3 2.5D with Interposer 1.4.4 Others Chapter 2- Recent Research and Development Activities of Three Dimensional (3D) Integration Technology 2.1 Recent Announcement of Research and Development Activities 2.2 Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM) 2.2.1 Through-Silicon Via (TSV) Technology for DRAM 2.2.2 Wide I/O and Wide I/O2 Mobile DRAM 2.3 Hybrid Memory Cube (HMC) and High Bandwidth Memory (HBM) DRAM 2.3.1 Hybrid Memory Cube (HMC)High Bandwidth Memory (HBM) DRAM 2.3.2 High Bandwidth Memory (HBM) DRAM 2.4 FPGA and 2.5D 2.5 Others 2.6 New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) Japan 2.6.1 Next Generation “Smart Device” Project 2.6.2 Background, Purpose and Target of “Smart Device” Project Chapter 3- TSV Processes 3.1 Deep Silicon Etching by Bosch process 3.1.1 Introduction 3.1.2 Basic characteristics of the Bosch process 3.1.3 Bosch Etching Equipment for TSV 3.1.4 Conclusions 3.2 High Rate Silicon-Via Etching and Basics of Sidewall Etch Reaction by Steady-State Etch Process 3.2.1 Introduction 3.2.2 MERIE Process for TSV Application Effect of RF Frequency Effect of Pressure Effect of Oxygen Addition 3.2.3 Investigation of Sidewall Etch Reaction Induced by SF6/O2 Plasma Effect of Oxygen Addition Effect of Temperature Effect of SiF4 Addition 3.2.4 Conclusion 3.3 Low Temperature CVD Technology 3.3.1 Introduction 3.3.2 Cathode-Coupled PECVD (LS-CVD) 3.3.3 Low Temperature SiO2 Deposition Wafer Temperature During Low Temperature Deposition Step Coverage in Si Via Holes Electrical Characteristics of SiO2 Film Deposited at Low Temperature Stress Control of SiO2 Film Deposited Using LS-CVD 3.3.4 Conclusion 3.4 Electrodeposition for Via-Filling 3.4.1 Cu+ Ion as an Accelerant Additive of Copper Electrodeposition 3.4.2 Relation between via Filling and Cu+ Ion by Periodical Reverse Current Waveform 3.4.3 Simulation of Cu+ Ion Distribution inside the Via 3.4.4 High Speed via Filling Electrodeposition by Other Organizations 3.4.5 Reduction of Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Electrodeposited Copper for TSV by Additive Chapter 4 - Wafer Handling and Thinning Processes 4.1 Wafer Thinning Solution for TSV Devices 4.1.1 Introduction 4.1.2 General Thinning 4.1.3 Wafer Thinning for TSV devices 4.1.4 TTV control 4.1.5 Summary 4.2 A Novel Via Middle TSV Thinning Technology by Si/Cu Grinding and CMP 4.2.1 Introduction 4.2.2 Methods 4.2.3 Results and Discussion Si/Cu Same Rate CMP (1st CMP) TSV Protrusion CMP (2nd CMP) Post CMP Cleaning after 2nd CMP 4.2.4 Conclusion 4.3 Temporally Bonding 4.3.1 Background 4.3.2 The 3MTM Temporary Bonding Materials 4.3.3 The 3MTM Temporary Adhesive 4.3.4 Laser Absorbing Layer 4.3.5 The Next Steps 4.4 Temporary Bonding and Debonding for Through-Silicon Via (TSV) Processing 4.4.1 Introduction 4.4.2 Temporary Bonding and Debonding Process 4.4.3 Debonding Method 4.4.4 Functions and Performance Requirements for Temporary Bonding Device 4.4.5 Ability and Performance Requirements for Debonding Devices 4.4.6 Tokyo Electron’s Temporary Bonder and Debonder Device Concept and Lineup 4.4.7 Future Outlook Chapter 5- Wafer and Die Bonding Processes 5.1 Permanent Wafer Bonding 5.1.1 Introduction 5.1.2 Low Temperature or Room Temperature Wafer Direct Bonding Method and Application Fusion Bonding Surface Activated Bonding Anodic Bonding Cu2Cu/Oxide Hybrid bonding Conclusion of Low Temperature or Room Temperature Wafer Direct Bonding Methods and Their Applications Future Outlook for Bonding Application Using Low Temperature or Normal Room Temperature Wafer Direct Bonding Methods 5.1.3 Requests Made to Equipment Makers and Initiatives Regarding Low Temperature or Room Temperature Wafer Direct Bonding Methods Post BAA Scaling Distortion Bonding strength Void 5.1.4 Tokyo Electron Initiatives 5.1.5 Conclusion 5.2 Underfill Materials 5.2.1 Technical Trend for Three Dimensional Integration Packages and Underfill Materials 5.2.2 Requirements for Underfill Materials Requirements for CUF and Material Technology Trend Requirements for NCP and Material Technology Trend 5.2.3 Application to CUF between the Stacked Chips 5.3 Non-Conductive Films 5.3.1 Introduction 5.3.2 Required Material Feature from Bonding Process 5.3.3 Voiding Issue in NC 5.3.4 High Through Put NCF-TCB Chapter 6- Metrology and Inspection 6.1 Principles of Spectroscopic Reflectometry 6.1.1 Introduction 6.1.2 Measurement 6.1.3 Setup 6.1.4 Analysis 6.1.5 Conclusion 6.2 Low Coherence Interferometry for 3D-IC TSV 6.2.1 Optical Measurement of Topographies and Thicknesses 3D-IC TSV Needs Tomography Tomography with Low Coherence Interferometry 6.2.2 Theory of Optical Coherence Tomography Basic Principle Time Domain OCT Fourier Domain OCT 6.2.3 Practical Considerations 6.2.4 Conclusion 6.3 Silicon and Glue Thickness Measurement for Grinding 6.3.1 Introduction 6.3.2 TSV Wafer Manufacturing Method and Challenges of Grinding 6.3.3 Features of BGM300 6.3.4 Verifying BGM300 Measurement Results 6.3.5 Measurement after Grinding 6.3.6 Optimized wafer Grinding Based on Via Height Information from BGM300 6.3.7 Conclusion 6.4 3D X-ray Microscopy Technology for Non-Destructive Analysis of Through-Silicon Vias 6.4.1 Introduction 6.4.2 Fundamentals of X-ray Microscopy Physics of X-ray Imaging 3D X-ray Microscopy 6.4.3 Applications for TSV Process Development 6.4.4 Applications for TSV Failure Analysis 6.4.5 Summary 6.5 Wafer Warpage and Local Distortion Measurement 6.5.1 Introduction 6.5.2 Basic Functions of WDM300 6.5.3 Measurement and Analysis of Local Deformations 6.5.4 Application 6.5.5 Summary Chapter 7 - TSV Characteristics and Reliability: Impact of 3D Integration Processes on Device Reliability 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Impact of Cu Contamination on Device Reliabilities in Thinned 3D-IC Chip 7.2.1 Impact of Cu Diffusion at Backside Surface in Thinned 3D-IC Chip Effect of Intrinsic Gettering (IG) layer Effect of Extrinsic Gettering (EG) layer 7.2.2 Impact of Cu Diffusion from Cu Via Effect of the Barrier Thickness and the Scallop Roughness Effect of the Annealing Temperature Keep Out Zone (KOZ) Characterization by Cu Diffusion from Cu Via 7.3 Impact of Mechanical Stress/Strain on Device Reliability in Stacked IC 7.3.1 Micro-Bump Induced Local Stress in Stacked IC 7.3.2 Si Mechanical Strength Reduction by Thinning 7.4 Impact of 3D Integration Process on DRAM Retention Characteristics 7.4.1 Impact of Mechanical Strength on Retention Characteristics in Thinn DRAM Chip 7.4.2 Impact of Cu Contamination on Memory Retention Characteristics in DRAM Chip Chapter 8 - Trends in 3D Integrated Circuit (3D-IC) Testing Technology 8.1 Crucial Issues and Key Technologies for 3D-IC Testing 8.2 Research Trends in Pre-bond Test for 3D-IC 8.3 Research Trends in Post-bond Test for 3D-IC 8.4 Research Trends in Automatic Test Pattern Generator (ATPG) and Test Scheduling for TSVs in 3D-IC 8.5 An Accurate Resistance Measuring Method for TSVs in 3D-IC 8.5.1 Background of Our Study 8.5.2 Problems of Conventional Analog Boundary-Scan for TSV Resistance Measurement Analog Boundary-Scan Standard resistance measuring method by 1149.4 Problems of conventional Analog Boundary-Scan for TSV resistance measuring 8.5.3 Proposed Measuring Method Floating Measurement method Complete isolation of the current path and the voltage path Segmenting the internal analog BUS (AB1, AB2) 8.5.4 Summary 8.6 Delay Measurement Circuits for Detecting TSV Delay Faults 8.6.1 Application of Time-to-Digital Converter Embedded in Boundary-Scan for 3D-IC Testing 8.6.2 Delay Measurement Circuit Using the Vernier Delay Line 8.6.3 Estimation of Defect Size Detectable by the Test Method 8.6.4 Summary 8.7 Electrical Interconnect Tests of Open Defects in a 3D-IC with a Built-in Supply Current Test Circuit 8.7.1 Electrical Tests with a Built-in Supply Current Test Circuit 8.7.2 Experimental Evaluation of Our Electrical Test Method 8.7.3 Summary Chapter 9 - Dream Chip Project at ASET 9.1 Overview of Japanese 3D Integration Technology R&D Project (Dream Chip) 9.2 Thermal Management and Chip Stacking Technology 9.2.1 Background 9.2.2 Chip Stacking/Joining Technology Metal Bump Materials and Structure Reliability Study of Micro Bump Electro Migration Test to Understand Current Density of Micro Bump Joint Flip Chip Bonding Density Towards 10 μm Connection Bump Pitch Stack and Gang Bonding Non-destructive Inspection Technologies of Micro Joint 9.2.3 Thermal Management Study Evaluation Technology of 3D Integrated Chip Stack TV200 Measurement Result and Correlation with Simulation Thermal Conductivity Anisotropy Induced by Cu TSV 9.2.4 Development of Automobile Drive Assistance Camera Development of Integration Process Development of Cooling System for Automobile Drive Assistance Camera 9.2.5 Summery 9.3 Thin Wafer Technology 9.3.1 Back Ground of Wafer Thinning Technology 9.3.2 Issues of Wafer Thinning 9.3.3 Ultrathin Wafer Thinning Process Wafer Support System (WSS) Thermal Resistance of the Resin Used for WSS Temporary Bonding Dicing Technology of Thin Chip Die Pick-up Technology of Thin Chip Thin Wafer Processing Technique in the Wafer Stacking Process 9.3.4 Issues on Wafer Thinning to Prevent Device Characteristics Change and Metal Contamination Evaluation Method of a Crystal Defect and Metal Pollution in the Thin Wafer Backside Grinding Methods and Their EG Effect Electrical Characteristics Deviation by Mechanical Stress 9.3.5 Standardization 9.3.6 Summary 9.4 3D Integration Technology 9.4.1 Background and Scope 9.4.2 C2C Process C2C Integration Overview C2C Integration Results 9.4.3 W2W Process W2W Integration Overview Wafer Bonding Technology W2W Integration Results 9.4.4 Summary 9.5 Ultra-wide Bus 3D-System-in Package (3D-SiP) Technology 9.5.1 Background 9.5.2 The Test Vehicle Fabrication 9.5.3 Evaluation 9.5.4 Summary 9.6 Mixed Signal (Digital and Analog) 3D Integration Technology for Automotive Application 9.6.1 Introduction 9.6.2 Challenges 9.6.3 Result of Basic Technology Development on Mixed-Signal 3D Integration Technology Basic Technology Development on 3D Integrated Imaging Sensor Module for In-Vehicle Realization of Mixed-Signal (CIS/CDS/ADC/IF) Integrated Structure by TSV Connection Development of Si Interposer Which Allotted TSV Type Decoupling Capacitor A Trial production and Evaluation of Car Drive Assist Image Processing System for Cars 9.6.4 Conclusion 9.7 Heterogeneous 3D Integration Technology for Radio Frequency Micro Electro Mechanical Systems RF MEMS (RF MEMS) 9.7.1 Background and Issues 9.7.2 Development Result Structure of 3D integration RF Module MEMS Tunable Filter MEMS Switch CMOS Driving IC 3D Integration of Tunable Filter Module RF and Tuning Performances of the Fabricated 3D Tunable Filter Module 9.7.3 Summary

Gives instruction on how to build three-dimensional interconnects

Introduces materials and processing for three-dimensional packaging

Discuss many applications of three-dimensional packaging