Nitrogen Deposition, Critical Loads and Biodiversity, 2014

Coordinators: Sutton Mark A., Mason Kate E., Sheppard Lucy J., Sverdrup Harald, Haeuber Richard, Hicks W. Kevin

Language: Anglais

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Nitrogen Deposition, Critical Loads and Biodiversity
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Nitrogen Deposition, Critical Loads and Biodiversity
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535 p. · 15.5x23.5 cm · Hardback

This volume brings together extended reviews and papers of new scientific research on atmospheric nitrogen deposition impacts globally. While there is a wealth of evidence on the magnitude, components and effects of nitrogen disposition on floral biodiversity in Europe and North America, there is an obvious lack of information on impacts on above- and below-ground fauna, and all impacts in other parts of the world, with no clear overview of how the different strands of evidence fit together. This overall synthesis is targeted at the international conventions, but is equally readable for scientists, environmental managers, conservation agencies and policy makers. 'This timely book highlights the global nitrogen deposition problem. Major regions of the world are exceeding sustainability thresholds for adverse effects on ecosystem function and biodiversity. This highlights the importance of ongoing work, including under the Convention on Biological Diversity, in developing indicators and monitoring nitrogen deposition effects to enable appropriate measures.

1 Nitrogen Deposition, Critical loads and Biodiversity: Introduction

Part I Monitoring and modelling atmospheric nitrogen deposition

2 Progress in Monitoring and Modelling Estimates of Nitrogen Deposition at Local, Regional and Global Scales

3 Gaseous nitrogen emissions from Australian cattle feedlots

4 Ammonia Emissions in the US: Assessing the Role of Bi-directional Ammonia Transport using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model

5 Regional Scale Modelling of the Concentration and Deposition of Oxidised and Reduced Nitrogen in the UK

6 High Rates of Wet Nitrogen Deposition in China: A Synthesis

7 Enrichment of atmospheric ammonia and ammonium in the North China Plain

8 Nitrogen Deposition within the Littoral-highlands County of Croatia between 1996 and 2008

9 Atmospheric Deposition of Reactive Nitrogen in India

10 Dry and Wet Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition in West Central Africa

11 Interannual Variability of the Atmospheric Nitrogen Budget in West African Dry Savannas

12 Assessment and Characterisation of the Organic Component of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition

13 Wet Deposition of Nitrogen at Different Locations in India

Part II Nitrogen impacts on terrestrial and aquatic Ecosystems

14 Factors Affecting Nitrogen Deposition Impacts on Biodiversity: An Overview

15 What Happens to Ammonia on Leaf Surfaces?

16 Effects of Nutrient Additions on the Diversity of the Herbaceous-subshrub Layer of a Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado)

17 Leaf Litter Decomposition and Nutrient Release under Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Nitrogen plus Phosphorus Additions in a Savanna in Central Brazil

18 Diversity of the Shrub-tree Layer in a Brazilian Cerrado under Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Nitrogen plus Phosphorus Addition

19 Model Predictions of Effects of Different Climate Change Scenarios on Species Diversity with or without Management Intervention, Repeated Thinning, for a Site in Central European Russia

20 Seasonal Changes in Photosynthetic Nitrogen of Tree Species Differing in Leaf Phenology in a South-eastern Brazilian Savanna

21 Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition can Provide Supplementary Fertilization to Sugar Cane Crops in Venezuela

22 Competition Alters Responses of Juvenile Woody Plants and Grasses to Nitrogen Addition in Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado)

23 Pigment Ratios of the Mediterranean Bryophyte Pleurochaete squarrosa Respond to Simulated Nitrogen Deposition

24 Calibrating Total Nitrogen Concentration in Lichens with Emissions of Reduced Nitrogen at the Regional Scale

25 The Impact of the Rural Land-use on the Ecological Integrity of the Intermittent Streams of the Mediterranean 2000

26 Biodiversity of Acid Grasslands in the Atlantic Regions of Europe: The Impact of Nitrogen Deposition

27 Effects of Increased Nitrogen Availability in Mediterranean Ecosystems: A Case Study in a Natura 2000 Site in Portugal

28 Species of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Spores can Indicate Increased Nitrogen Availability in Mediterranean-type Ecosystems

29 Nitrogen Biogeochemistry Research at Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia, USA: Soils, Biodiversity and Climate Change

Part III Critical loads and levels approaches and regional upscaling

30 Development of the critical loads concept and current and potential applications to different regions of the world

31 Nitrogen Deposition as a Threat to the World’s Protected Areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

32 How Much is too Much? Nitrogen Critical Loads and Eutrophication and Acidification in Oligotrophic Ecosystems

33 Predicting Lichen-based Critical Loads for Nitrogen Deposition in Temperate Forests

34 Using Fire Risk and Species Loss to set Critical Loads for Nitrogen Deposition in Southern California Shrublands

35 Empirical Critical Loads of Nitrogen in China

36 Challenges in Defining Critical Loads for Nitrogen in UK Lakes

37 Proposing a Strict Epidemiological Methodology for Setting Empirical Critical Loads for Nitrogen Deposition

38 A Comparison of Empirical and Modelled Nitrogen Critical Loads for Mediterranean Forests and Shrublands in California

39 Source Attribution of Eutrophying and Acidifying Pollutants on the UK Natura 2000 Network

40 Mapping Critical Loads for Nitrogen Based on Biodiversity using ForSAFE-VEG: Introducing the Basic Principles

Part IV Nitrogen deposition, ecosystem services and policy development

41 Impacts of Nitrogen Deposition on Ecosystem Services in Interaction with Other Nutrients, Air Pollutants and Climate Change

42 The Form of Reactive Nitrogen Deposition Affects the Capacity of Peatland Vegetation to Immobilise Nitrogen: Implications for the Provision of Ecosystem Services

43 Quantification of Impacts of Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem Services in Europe

44 Implications of Current Knowledge on Nitrogen Deposition and Impacts for Policy, Management and Capacity Building Needs: CLRTAP

45 The Convention on Biological Diversity: How does Nitrogen fit into the Plans?

46 Agriculture and the Nitrogen Problem in India: Environmental Implications

47 Mitigating Increases in Nitrogen Deposition: The Challenge of Extending Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation to Cereals and Other Non-legume Crops

Part V Conclusions and outlook

48 Progress in Nitrogen Deposition Monitoring and Modelling

49 The Effects of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Terrestrial and Freshwater Biodiversity

50 The Critical Loads and Levels Approach for Nitrogen

51 Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Ecosystem Services and Interactions with other Pollutants and Climate Change

52 Workshop on Nitrogen Deposition, Critical Loads and Biodiversity: Scientific synthesis and summary for policy makers

Focuses on better quantification of atmospheric deposition, development and application of critical loads methodologies

Looks at the assessment of impacts on biodiversity, the consequences for ecosystem services

Includes approaches to developing environmental policies to manage the threats of nitrogen deposition