Digital Communications with Emphasis on Data Modems

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Preface xxi

Acknowledgements xxvii

Summary of Notations xxix

About The Cover xxxi

1 Mathematical Background and Analysis Techniques 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The Fourier Transform and Fourier Series 5

1.3 Pulse Distortion With Ideal Filter Models 16

1.4 Correlation Processing 19

1.5 Random Variables and Probability 20

1.6 Random Processes 41

1.7 The Matched Filter 44

1.8 The Likelihood and Log–Likelihood Ratios 46

1.9 Parameter Estimation 47

1.10 Modem Configurations and Automatic Repeat Request 55

1.11 Windows 57

1.12 Matrices, Vectors, and Related Operations 66

1.13 Often Used Mathematical Procedures 70

1.14 Often Used Mathematical Relationships 71

Acronyms 74

Problems 75

References 78

2 Digital Signal Processing and Modem Design Considerations 81

2.1 Introduction 81

2.2 Discrete Amplitude Sampling 81

2.3 Discrete–Time Sampling 87

2.4 Signal Reconstruction Following Discrete–Time Sampling 91

2.5 Baseband Sampling 92

2.6 Bandpass Sampling 92

2.7 Corrections for Nonideal Modulators and Demodulators 99

2.8 Multirate Signal Processing and Interpolation 106

Appendix 2C Derivation of Parabolic Interpolation Error 126

Acronyms 127

Problems 128

References 130

3 Digital Communications 133

3.1 Introduction 133

3.2 Digital Data Modulation and Optimum Demodulation Criteria 135

3.3 Information and Channel Capacity 139

3.4 Bit–Error Probability Bound on Memoryless Channel 148

3.5 Probability Integral and the Error Function 150 Acronyms 151

Problems 151

References 152

4 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation, Demodulation, and Performance 153

4.1 Introduction 153

4.2 Constant Envelope Phase–Modulated Waveforms 154

4.3 Non–Constant Envelope Phase–Modulated Waveforms 175

4.4 Phase–Modulated Waveform Spectrums and Performance 178

Acronyms 202

Problems 203

References 204

5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation, Demodulation, and Performance 207

5.1 Introduction 207

5.2 Coherent Detection of BFSK Known Frequency and Phase 207

5.3 Noncoherent Detection of BFSK Known Frequency and Unknown Phase 210

5.4 Case Studies: Coherent and Noncoherent BFSK Performance Simulation 211

5.5 Noncoherent Detection of BFSK Unknown Frequency and Phase 214

5.6 BFSK Spectral Density with Arbitrary Modulation Index 219

Acronyms 224

Problems 225

References 225

6 Amplitude Shift Keying Modulation, Demodulation, and Performance 227

6.1 Introduction 227

6.2 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) 227

6.3 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) 234

6.4 Alternate QAM Waveform Constellations 236

6.5 Case Study: 16–ary QAM Performance Evaluation 236

6.6 Partial Response Modulation 237

Problems 248

References 249

7 M–ary Coded Modulation 251

7.1 Introduction 251

7.2 Coherent Detection of Orthogonal Coded Waveforms 252

7.3 Noncoherent Detection of M–ary Orthogonal Waveforms 253

7.4 Coherent Detection of M–ary Biorthogonal Waveforms 256 Acronyms 259

Problems 259

References 259

8 Coding for Improved Communications 261

8.1 Introduction 261

8.2 Pulse Code Modulation 261

8.3 Gray Coding 268

8.4 Differential Coding 269

8.5 Pseudo–Random Noise Sequences 270

8.6 Binary Cyclic Codes 273

8.7 Cyclic Redundancy Check Codes 274

8.8 Data Randomizing Codes 276

8.9 Data Interleaving 277

8.10 Wagner Coding and Decoding 279

8.11 Convolutional Codes 283

8.12 Turbo and Turbo–Like Codes 299

8.13 LDPC Code and TPC 313

8.14 Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem Codes 315

8.14.1 Binary BCH Codes 317

8.14.2 RS Codes 319

Appendix 8A 328

Appendix 8B 329

Acronyms 331

Problems 331

References 333

9 Forward Error Correction Coding Without Bandwidth Expansion 339

9.1 Introduction 339

9.2 Multi–h M–ary CPM 340

9.3 Case Study: 2–h 4–ary 1REC CPM 350

9.4 Multiphase Shift Keying Trellis–Coded Modulation 362

9.4.1 Example Design using Constraint Length v = 3, Rate 2/3 8PSK–TCM 366

9.5 Case Study: Four–State 8PSK–TCM Performance Over Satellite Repeater 367

Problems 372

References 372

10 Carrier Acquisition and Tracking 375

10.1 Introduction 375

10.2 Bandpass Limiter 377

10.3 Baseband Phaselock Loop Implementation 378

10.4 Phase–Error Generation 378

10.5 First–Order Phaselock Loop 380

10.6 Second–Order Phaselock Loop 380

10.7 Third–Order Phaselock Loop 390

10.8 Optimum Phase Tracking Algorithms 396

10.9 Squaring Loss Evaluation 406

10.10 Case Study: BPSK and QPSK Phaselock Loop Performance 408

10.11 Case Study: BPSK Phase Tracking Performance of a Disadvantaged Transmit Terminal 410

Acronyms 410

Problems 410

References 411

11 Waveform Acquisition 413

11.1 Introduction 413

11.2 CW Preamble Segment Signal Processing 416

11.3 Symbol Synchronization Preamble Segment 432

11.4 Start–of–Message (SOM) Preamble segment 452

11.5 Signal–to–Noise Ratio Estimation 452

Acronyms 458

Problems 459

References 460

12 Adaptive Systems 463

12.1 Introduction 463

12.2 Optimum Filtering Wiener s Solution 464

12.3 Finite Impulse Response–Adaptive Filter Estimation 465

12.4 Intersymbol Interference and Multipath Equalization 469

12.5 Interference and Noise Cancellation 472

12.6 Recursive Least Square (RLS) Equalizer 473

12.7 Case Study: LMS Linear Feedforward Equalization 474

12.8 Case Study: Narrowband Interference Cancellation 474

12.9 Case Study: Recursive Least Squares Processing 480

Problems 483

References 483

13 Spread–Spectrum Communications 485

13.1 Introduction 485

13.2 Spread–Spectrum Waveforms and Spectrums 487

13.3 Jammer and Interceptor Encounters 499

13.4 Communication Interceptors 502

13.5 Bit–Error Performance of DSSS Waveforms with Jamming 504

13.6 Performance of MFSK with Partial–Band Noise Jamming 512

13.7 Performance of Dcmpsk with Partial–Band Noise Jamming 514

13.8 FHSS Waveforms with Multitone Jamming 515

13.9 Approximate Performance with Jammer Threats 521

13.10 Case Study: Terrestrial Jammer Encounter and Link–Standoff Ratio 522 Acronyms 524

Appendix 13A 525

Problems 526

References 527

14 Modem Testing, Modeling, and Simulation 531

14.1 Introduction 531

14.2 Statistical Sampling 532

14.3 Computer Generation of Random Variables 539

14.4 Baseband Waveform Description 545

14.5 Sampled Waveform Characterization 547

14.6 Case Study: BPSK Monte Carlo Simulation 548

14.7 System Performance Evaluation Using Quadrature Integration 550

14.8 Case Study: BPSK Bit–Error Evaluation with PLL Tracking 551

14.9 Case Study: QPSK Bit–Error Evaluation with PLL Tracking 553

14.9.1 QPSK Bit–Error Evaluation Using Tikhonov Phase Distribution 553

14.9.2 QPSK Bit–Error Evaluation Using Gaussian Phase Approximation 553

Acronyms 554

Problems 554

References 555

15 Communication Range Equation and Link Analysis 557

15.1 Introduction 557

15.2 Receiver and System Noise Figures and Temperatures 560

15.3 Antenna Gain and Patterns 568

15.4 Rain Loss 571

15.5 Electric Field Wave Polarization 573

15.6 Phase–Noise Loss 578

15.7 Scintillation Loss 583

15.8 Multipath Loss 583

15.9 Interface Mismatch Loss 584

15.10 Miscellaneous System Losses 585

15.11 Nonlinear Power Amplifier Analysis and Simulation 585

15.12 Computer Modeling of TWTA and SSPA Nonlinearities 588

15.13 Establishing Signal Levels for Simulation Modeling 590

15.14 Case Study: Performance Simulation of SRRC–OQPSK with SSPA Nonlinearity 592

15.15 Link Budget Analysis 596

Acronyms 598

Problems 598

References 599

16 Satellite Orbits 603

16.1 Introduction 603

16.2 Satellite Orbits 606

16.3 Earth Stations 607

16.4 Path Loss, Doppler, and Doppler–rate 609

16.5 Satellite Viewing 609

16.6 Satellite Orbit Selection 610

16.7 Satellite Orbit Position Estimation From Parameter Measurements 611

16.8 Case Study: Example Satellite Encounters 612 Acronyms 614

Problems 614

References 615

17 Communications Through Bandlimited Time–Invariant Linear Channels 617

17.1 Introduction 617

17.2 Inphase and Quadrature Channel Response 618

17.3 Inphase and Quadrature Channel Response to Arbitrary Signal 619

17.4 Pulse Modulated Carrier Signal Characteristics 621

17.5 Channel Response to a Pulsed Modulated Waveform 622

17.6 Example Performance Simulations 623

17.7 Example of Channel Amplitude and Phase Responses 624

17.8 Example Channel Amplitude, Phase, and Delay Functions 627

Problems 631

References 631

18 Communications in Fading Environments 633

18.1 Introduction 633

18.2 Ricean Fading Channels 634

18.3 Ricean Cumulative Distribution 635

18.4 Application of Ricean Channel Model 635

18.5 Performance of Several Binary Modulation Waveforms with Ricean Fading 636

18.6 Generation of Ricean Random Variables 639

18.7 Relationships Between Fading Channel Parameters 641

18.8 Diversity Techniques for Fading Channels 643

Acronyms 647

Problems 647

References 647

19 Atmospheric Propagation 649

19.1 Introduction 649

19.2 Communication Link Geometry for Curved Earth 650

19.3 Reflection 652

19.4 Case Study: Leo Satellite Multipath Propagation 654

19.5 Refraction 656

19.6 Diffraction 660

19.7 Longley–Rice Propagation Loss Model 661

19.8 Urban, Suburban, and Rural Environment Propagation Loss Models 663

19.9 Land Mobile Satellite Propagation Loss Models 665

19.10 Impulsive Noise Channel 667

19.11 Ocean Wind Wave Channel 676

19.12 Laser Communications Using Photomultiplier Detector 684

Acronyms 692

Problems 692

References 694

Additional Wireless Mobile Communication References 697

20 Ionospheric Propagation 699

20.1 Introduction 699

20.2 Electron Densities: Natural Environment 700

20.3 Electron Densities: Nuclear–Disturbed Environment 703

20.4 The Refractive Index and Signal Propagation 704

20.5 Signal Propagation in Severe Scintillation Environment 706

20.6 Propagation Disturbances Following Severe Absorption 712

20.7 Rayleigh Scintillation Channel Model 715

20.8 Scintillation Mitigation Techniques 721

20.9 Case Study: BPSK and DCBPSK Performance in Rayleigh Fading Channel 722

Acronyms 729

Problems 729

References 730

Appendix A: Classical Filters and Applications 733

Appendix B: Digital Filter Design and Applications 747

Appendix C: Detection of Signals in Noise 755

Index 000