Introduction. 1. The Peoples and States of Europe on the Eve of 1914. 2. The Coming of the Great War. 3. The Great War of 1914-1918. 4. Europe Transformed: The Aftermath of War in the 1920s. 5. The Dissolution of the Ancestral Order: Culture and Thought in the Postwar Era. 6. Depression and Dictatorship in the 1930s. 7. The Background of the Second World War. 8. The Second World War, 1939-1945. 9. Europe and the Cold War, 1945-1956. 10. The Post-1945 Recovery of Western Europe. 11. Soviet Communism after Stalin. 12. Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s. 13. The 1980s: Dramatic Decade. 14. The Twentieth Century Winds Down, Europe and the World in the 1990s. 15. Conclusion: In the Dying Century, A Dying Civilization? Bibliography. Index.