Language, culture, and communication (5th ed )

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Language: Anglais
Cover of the book Language, culture, and communication (5th ed )

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448 p. · Paperback

Preface ix

1 Introduction 1

References 6

2 The Form of the Message 7

Phonology: The Sounds of Language 7

Phonetics 7

Phonemic Analysis 13

Prosodic Features 15

Morphological: The Structure of Words 17

Morphological Analysis 17

Morphological Typologies 19

Grammatical Concepts 20

Syntax: The Structure of Sentences 23

Semantics: The Analysis of Meaning 27

Manual Language 29

Formation of Signs 29

ASL Vocabulary and Grammar 31

Nonverbal Communication 34

Nonverbal Actions 34

The Meaning of Silence 39

Summary 41

References 41

3 Language and Cultural Meaning 43

Foundations of Linguistic Anthropology 44

A Contemporary Comment 47

Reexamination of Linguistic Relativity 48

Lexical and Cultural Categories 51

Domains 51

Lexical Components 52

Lexical Classifications 54

Ethnoscience 56

Universal Processes: Color Terms 57

Focal Meaning and Prototypes 59

Concepts of Space and Location 60

Cultural Presupposition 65

Extended and Transferred Meaning 68

Metaphor and Metonymy 68

Metaphors of Kinship 70

Metaphors of the Body 72

Summary 76

References 76

4 Contextual Components: Outline of an Ethnography

of Communication 79

Ethnography of Communication 79

Settings 82

Participants 83

Terms of Address 84

Pronouns 86

Kinship Terms 88

Honorifics 89

Topics and Goals 92

Speech Acts 94

Narratives 96

Routines 106

Greetings 107

Apologies 109

Summary 111

References 112

5 Communicative Interactions 114

Structural Properties of Conversation 114

Conversational Postulates 119

Directives 122

Directives and Responses in Context 126

Telephone Conversation 127

Politeness 133

Theories of Politeness 133

Politeness in Japanese 140

Summary 143

References 144

6 Societal Segmentation and Linguistic Variation:

Class and Race 146

Social Stratification 147

Caste 147

Class 148

Class and Network 149

New York City150

Norwich, England156

Parisand Rouen, France 157

Maaseik, Belgium159

Class-Based Codes 161

Race 164

African-American English in the United States 164

The Structure of African-American Vernacular English 165

Settings and Contexts 169

The Ebonics Controversy 177

Afro-Caribbean Speakers in Great Britain 179

Summary 183

References 184

7 Language and Gender: English and English Speakers 186

Pronunciation 188

Phonological Variants 188

Intonation 193

Grammatical Variants 194

Choices of Vocabulary 198

Gender-Related Convers