I. THE ENCOUNTER. A. An Abundant Nature and Promises of Wealth. B. Beautiful Lands and Innocent Natives. C. The Marvels of the Aztec Capital. D. Visual Depiction of the Indians. E. A Negative Impact of Conquest on Indian Society. F. Indian Lamentations. The Fall of Tenochtitlán. The Imprisonment of Cuauhtémoc. Flowers and Songs of Sorrow. G. Murals Depicting Cuauhtémoc. H. The King and the Indian. I. An Indian Assessment of Europe. J. To Columbus. K. In the Ancient Land of the Aztecs, the Hurrah for Columbus Is Muted. L. Cultural Symbiosis. The Stone and the Cross. II. PATTERNS FOR WEALTH. A. An Example of a Colonial Land Grant. B. Establishing the Basis for the Encomienda System. C. A Grant of Encomienda. D. A Petition to the King to Grant Permanent Encomiendas. E. Slave Labor on a Brazilian Plantation. F. Forced Labor Recruitment. G. A Comfortable Life. H. Sugar Plantation in Brazil at the End of the Colonial Period. III. PATTERNS FOR POWER. A. Bolivar's Political Prescriptions. The Congress of Angostura, 1819. The Constitution for Bolivia, 1826. B. Political Advice from a Father to His Son. C. The Caudillo in Spanish America. D. The Brazilian Constitutions of 1824: Contractual, Genetic, and Patriarchal. E. The Brazilian Emperor's Perception of His Own Role. Poem: If I am Pious, Clement, Just.... Advice to my Daughter and Heir. F. The Brazilian Monarchy and the Empowerment of ?Youth and a Woman. IV. MODERNITY VIES WITH TRADITION. A. Latin American Society in the Mid-Nineteenth Century. The City and the Countryside: Civilization versus Barbarism. Social Life in Brazil in the Middle of the Nineteenth Century. B. The Export Economy. A Sugar Plantation in Cuba. Rising Coffee Exports and Falling Food Surpluses in Brazil, 1850-1860. C. Ordinary People Face Economic Challenges. The Dispossessed in Rural Mexico. The Indians Lose Their Land, a. The Mexican Constitution of 1857, b. Legal Protection Ends for the Lands of the Indians of Colombia. Land Monopoly in Pernambuco, Brazil. The Standard of Living of Workers in Northeastern Brazil. A Description of the Indians of Andean Columbia. The Limits of Education. V. LATIN AMERICANS DEFINE THEMSELVES. A. An Early Effort to Define Latin America. B. Salvation through Originality. C. Ariel: The Spiritual Nature of the Latin Americans. D. The African Contribution to Brazilian Civilization. E. Combining European and Local Values into a National Culture. F. La Raza Cosmica: A New Race and a New Ideal. G. Liberating the Spirit of the Artist. My Life and Art. New World, New Race, and New Art. In Defense of National Dance. H. Reinterpreting the Indian Past. I. Masquerading Reality. VI. THE QUEST FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. A. The Historical Causes of Underdevelopment. B. The Web of Exploitation: State and Peasants in Latin America. C. Dependency Theory. D. The Need for Structural Changes. E. An Early Statement of Economic Nationalism. F. Goals for Development. The Problem. The Solution. G. Nationalism and Development. H. Artistic and Literary Reactions to Progress. Art as Historical Document. An Appeal to Some Learned Doctors. Rosaura. VII. THE REVOLUTIONARY OPTION. A. A Theory of the Natural History of Revolution. B. The Visual Presentation of Popular Protest. C. Land and Revolution. The Plan of Ayala. Agrarian Reform Begins. D. Is the Mexican Revolution Dead? Mexico's Historical Crisis. The Revolution is Dead. E. The Cuban Revolution. Program Manifesto of the 26th of July Movement. The Causes of the Cuban Revolution. Agrarian Reform. Women in the Cuban Revolution. The Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of the Cuban Revolution. F. The Nicaraguan Revolution. Sandino to Sandinistas: Historical Revolutionary Continuity. The Historic Program of the FSLN. The Minister of Agriculture Discusses Agrarian Reform. A Peasant Discusses Agrarian Reform. Elections Derailed the Revolution: What Happened? The Initial Record of the UNO Government. G. Women at War. VIII. A LINGERING LEGACY. A. Failure to Resolve the Agrarian Issue. B. The End to Food Self-Sufficiency in Mexico. C. Hunger in Honduras. D. The Burden of the Brazilian Child. E. It Can Hurt Plenty. F. The Glass of Milk. G. A Major Transformation: Rural to Urban. H. The Challenge to Democracy. I. Misguided Development. J. Making Our Own History. K. New Leadership: Fear and Hope. Haiti: Turning in to Another Cuba? Haiti: A Plea for Grassroots Development.