Cytokines have become established as key mediators of the signs and symptoms of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, dermatitis, asthma and multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, they are involved in the cascade of events leading to cardiovascular shock and are major regulators of the function of immune cells. This book reviews recent advances in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. It addresses different therapeutic intervention possibilities for new drugs, such as the cellular source of cytokines, specific receptors which induce cytokine synthesis, intracellular regulators of cytokine gene induction and expression, secretion and activation of cytokines, cytokine receptors and signalling pathways from these receptors. Accordingly, experts were drawn from different backgrounds including academic research institutes, the pharmaceutical industry and clinical pharmacology. In each area, the opportunities for drug development are highlighted and, where possible, clinical data is reviewed.