Plant development : the cellular basis, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1990
The Cellular Basis

Topics in Plant Physiology Series, Vol. 3

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Language: Anglais

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Plant Development
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320 p. · 15.5x23.5 cm · Paperback

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Plant development : the cellular basis
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220 p. · 23.4x15.6 cm · Hardback
The study of plant development in recent years has often been concerned with the effects of the environment and the possible involvement of growth substances. The prevalent belief that plant growth substances are crucial to plant development has tended to obscure rather than to clarify the underlying cellular mechanisms of development. The aim in this book is to try to focus on what is currently known, and what needs to be known, in order to explain plant development in terms that allow further experimentation at the cellular and molecular levels. We need to know where and at what level in the cell or organ the critical processes controlling development occur. Then, we will be better able to under­ stand how development is controlled by the genes, whether directly by the continual production of new gene transcripts or more indirectly by the genes merely defining self-regulating systems that then function autonomously. This book is not a survey of the whole of plant development but is meant to concentrate on the possible component cellular and molecular processes involved. Consequently, a basic knowledge of plant structure is assumed. The facts of plant morphogenesis can be obtained from the books listed in the General Reading section at the end of Chapter 1. Although references are not cited specifically in the text, the key references for each section are denoted by superscript numbers and listed in the Notes section at the end of each chapter.
I Development of the Basic Structures.- 1 The problems of development: embryogenesis.- 1.1 The problems of development.- 1.2 Changes in gene expression.- 1.3 Embryogenesis — the problems exemplified.- 1.4 Summary.- General reading.- Further reading.- Notes.- II Iterative Growth: Meristem Structure and Functioning.- 2 Root and shoot meristems: structure and growth.- 2.1 Module production.- 2.2 Meristemorganization.- 2.3 How is the rate of cell division controlled in meristems?.- 2.4 Summary.- Further reading.- Notes.- 3 Meristem functioning: formation of branches, leaves, and floral organs.- 3.1 Formation of branches.- 3.2 Leaf initiation.- 3.3 Changes in primordial initiation on flowering.- 3.4 Summary.- Further reading.- Notes.- III Control of Shape and Directions of Growth: The Cellular Basis of Form.- 4 Shape, growth directions, and surface structure.- 4.1 Maintenance of shape.- 4.2 The structural basis of axiality.- 4.3 Formation of a new axis and changes of growth direction.- 4.4 Surface structure and primordium formation.- 4.5 Summary.- Further reading.- Notes.- 5 Control of the plane of cell division.- 5.1 Cell division and its relation to the growth axis.- 5.2 Are changes in the shape of plant parts correlated with differential rates or planes of cell division?.- 5.3 Is the direction of growth determined by the plane of cell division, or is the plane of cell division consequential on the direction of growth?.- 5.4 Factors orientating the plane of cell division.- 5.5 Unequal cell divisions.- 5.6 The role of the cytoskeleton.- 5.7 The cytoskeleton and the plane of cell division.- 5.8 Summary.- Further reading.- Notes.- 6 The cellular basis of polarity.- 6.1 Development of polarity in Fucus and Pelvetia zygotes.- 6.2 Polarity in other cells — ion currents.- 6.3 Changing the polarity of growth.- 6.4 Polarity in unequal divisions.- 6.5 Polarity in tip growth.- 6.6 Polarity of growth in individual, isolated cells.- 6.7 Summary.- Further reading.- Notes.- IV Cell Differentiation.- 7 Control of the differentiation of vascular tissues.- 7.1 Regeneration of vascular tissues in wounded plants.- 7.2 Formation of xylary elements in culture and cell suspensions.- 7.3 Induction of vascular tissues in callus: formation of nodules.- 7.4 Does cell differentiation require specific concentrations of inducers?.- 7.5 Differentiation of xylem and phloem: can either form alone?.- 7.6 Induction of vascular strands.- 7.7 Secondary vascular tissues.- 7.8 Summary.- Further reading.- Notes.- 8 Cell enlargement, maturation, and differentiation.- 8.1 Limits of cell division.- 8.2 Cell enlargement and maturation.- 8.3 Cell differentiation.- 8.4 Summary.- Further reading.- Notes.- 9 Genes and development.- 9.1 Genic regulation of development.- 9.2 Gene expression during development.- 9.3 Induced changes in genes governing development.- 9.4 Growth substances and the control of gene expression.- 9.5 Summary.- Further reading.- Notes.- V Competence and Determination.- 10 Competence and determination in differentiation.- 10.1 Commitment.- 10.2 Is there such a thing as an undetermined cell?.- 10.3 Determination in callus and at the cellular level.- 10.4 Competence and determination in xylem cell differentiation.- 10.5 Competence and determination in bud initiation.- 10.6 Competence and determination in antheridium initiation in fern prothalli.- 10.7 Competence and determination in shoots and roots.- 10.8 Competence and determination in leaf development.- 10.9 The nature of determination.- 10.10 Summary.- Further reading.- Notes.- 11 Competence and determination in flowering.- 11.1 The transition to flowering.- 11.2 Commitment to flower in plants with juvenile phases — tobacco and blackcurrant.- 11.3 Effects of growth substances on determination in the grapevine.- 11.4 Determination in the flower.- 11.5 Determination in the flower as revealed by reversion.- 11.6 Determination in abnormal flower development.- 11.7 Flowering as changes in competence and determination.- 11.8 Summary.- Further reading.- Notes.- VI Coordination of Development.- 12 Pattern formation, positional information, and integration of growth.- 12.1 Spacing patterns of organs: phyllotaxis, lateral roots, branching.- 12.2 Patterns of tissues — blocking out of tissue patterns in meristems; why do some cells differentiate and not their neighbours?.- 12.3 Patterns of cells.- 12.4 Regeneration of pattern — positional information.- 12.5 Formation of pattern de novo and its physicochemical basis.- 12.6 Pattern formation within algal cells.- 12.7 Cell-cell communication.- 12.8 Integration of development: plants as fail-safe systems.- 12.9 Summary.- Further reading.- Notes.- References.