Understanding statistics (4th ed' 95) (paper)

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Language: Anglais

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416 p. · Paperback
This brief, 2-color softcover text is a thorough but lighthearted introduction to the basics of statistics. The authors stress what statistics is used for, with a well organized approach rooted in concrete examples. They do a superior job of explaining the structure of a hypothesis test, by presenting a consistent approach and stressing the relationship between sample and population throughout the text.
PREFACE CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1-1 Statistics in Everyday Life 1-2 Some Statistical Terms 1-3 Approximate Numbers Study Aids Chapter Summary Vocabulary Exercises Class Survey Class Survey Questions Field Projects Class Experiments CHAPTER 2: Common Statistical Measures 2-1 Measures of Central Tendency 2-2 Symbols and Formulas Exercises 2-3 Measures of Variability 2-3-1The Range 2-3-2 The Standard Deviation 2-3-3 Formulas Exercises 2-4 Some Measures of an Individual in a Population 2-4-1 z-Scores 2-4-2 Percentile Rank and Percentiles 2-4-3 Quartiles Exercises 2-5 Rates Study Aids Chapter Summary Vocabulary Symbols Formulas Exercises Class Survey Questions Field Projects Class Experiment CHAPTER 3: Frequency Tables and Graphs Goals 3-1 Organizing the Data 3-1-1 Stem-and-Leaf Display 3-1-2 Frequency Tables 3-1-3 Bar Graphs and Histograms 3-1-4 Reading Histrograms 3-2 Percentile Rank, z-Scores and Graphs Study Aids Chapter Summary Symbols Formulas Exercises Class Survey Questions Field Projects Class Experiments Sample Test for Chapters 1, 2, and 3 CHAPTER 4: Probability Goals 4-1 Probability 4-2 Probability and Histograms Study Aids Chapter Summary Symbols Formulas Exercises Class Survey Questions Field Projects CHAPTER 5: The Binomial Distribution 5-1 Variables 5-2 Binomial Random Variables Study Aids Chapter Summary Symbols Exercises Class Survey Questions Class Experiments 5-3 Binomial Probability Tables CHAPTER 6: The Normal Distribution Goals 6-1 Binomial Histograms 6-2 The Theoretical Normal Curve 6-2-1 Use of the Normal Curve Table 6-2-2 The Normal Curve Table and Raw Scores Study Aids Chapter Summary Vocabulary Symbols Exercises Class Survey Questions Class Experiments CHAPTER 7: Approximation of the Binomial Distribution by Use of the Normal Distribution Goals 7-1 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution 7-2 Conditions for Approximating a Binomial Distribution by Use of a Normal Distribution Study Aids Chapter Summary Symbols Formulas Exercises Class Survey Questions Field Project Class Experiments Sample Test for Chapters 4, 5, 6, and 7 CHAPTER 8: Hypothesis Testing: One-Sample Test of Percentages in Binomial Experiments Goals 8-1 Statistical Hypotheses 8-1-1 Testing the Null Hypothesis 8-1-2 One-Trail and Two-Tail Alternative Hypotheses 8-1-3 Decision Rules 8-2 Statistical Errors Exercises 8-3 More about Type I Errors and Decision Rules Exercises 8-4 More about Type II Errors (Optional) 8-4-1 Calculating a Value for B for a Given p 8-4-2 The Power of a Test Exercises 8-5 Hypothesis - Testing Procedures Study Aids Chapter Summary Vocabulary Symbols Formulas Exercises A Brief Summary of a Hypothesis Test Exercises Class Survey Questions Field Projects Example of a Field Project Solution for This Project Suggested Projects CHAPTER 9: Hypothesis Testing: Two-Sample Tests of Percentages in Binomial Experiments Goals 9-1 Symbols for Estimates 9-2 A Distribution of Differences 9-3 Two-Sample Binomial Hypotheses Tests Study Aids Chapter Summary Symbols Formulas Exercises Class Survey Question Field Projects Example of a Two-Sample Binomial Field Project CHAPTER 10: Hypothesis Testing with Sample Means: Large Samples Goals 10-1 Sample Means 10-1-1 Theoretical Distribution of Sample Means 10-1-2 Central Limit Theorem 10-1-3 Estimating the Standard Deviation of a Distribution of Sample Means Exercises 10-2 Two-Sample Tests of Means - Large Samples Study Aids Chapter Summary Vocabulary Symbols Formulas Exercises Class Survey Questions Field Projects Class Experiments CHAPTER 11: Hypothesis Testing with Sample Means: Small Samples Goals 11-1 Student's t-Distribution Exercises 11-2 Two-Sample t-Tests Exercises 11-3 A t-Test for Paired Differences, Matched-Pair Designs Study Aids Chapter Summary Vocabulary Symbols Formulas Exercises Class Survey Question Field Project Class Experiment Sample Test for Chapters 8, 9, 10, and 11 CHAPTER 12: Confidence Intervals Goals 12-1 Confidence Intervals for Proportions in Binomial Experiments Exercises 12-2 Confidence Intervals for Means Based on Large-Samples Exercises 12-3 Confidence Intervals for Means Based on Small-Samples Exercises 12-4 Two-Sample Confidence Intervals for Differences 12-4-1 Differences between Two Proportions 12-4-2 Differences between Two Means Study Aids Chapter Summary Vocabulary Formulas Exercises Class Survey Question Field Projects CHAPTER 13: Chi Square Goals 13-1 Chi Square Tests of Independence 13-2 Degrees of Freedom in a Contingency Table 13-3 A Shorter Way to Compute X 2 13-4 2 by 2 Contingency Tables 13-5 Goodness of Fit Test Study Aids Chapter Summary Guidelines for a Chi-Square Test Vocabulary Symbols Formulas Exercises Class Survey Questions Field Projects Sample Test For Chapters 12 and 13 CHAPTER 14: Correlation and Prediction Goals 14-1 Correlation Coefficients Exercises 14-2 Testing the Significance of r Exercises 14-3 Prediction Based on Linear Correlation 14-3-1 Interpretation of b 14-4 The Coefficient of Determination Study Aids Chapter Summary Vocabulary Symbols Formulas Exercises Class Survey Questions Field Project Class Experiments CHAPTER 15: Tests Involving Variance Goals Introduction 15-1 One-Sample Tests of Variance 15-2 Two-Sample Comparisons of Variance (via the F-test) 15-2-1 One-Tail Tests for Comparison of Variance 15-2-2 Two-Tail Tests for Comparison of Variance 15-3 Using Sample Variances to Make Inferences About Means - An Introduction to the Analysis of Variance Study Aids Chapter Summary Vocabulary Symbols Formulas Exercises Class Survey Question Field Projects CHAPTER 16: Nonparametric Tests Goals 16-1 The Sign Test for Matched Pairs of Data Exercises 16-2 The Runs Test for Randomness Exercises 16-3 The Mann-Whitney U-Test for Comparison of Ranks 16-3-1 Small-Sample, One-Tail Tests 16-3-2 Small-Sample, Two-Tail Tests 16-3-3 Large-Sample Tests 16-3-4 The Case of Ties Study Aids Chapter Summary Vocabulary Symbols Formulas Exercises Class Survey Questions Field Project Sample Test for Chapters 14, 15, and 16 APPENDICES A Arithmetic Review B Using A Random Digit Table C Probability D Tables ANSWERS INDEX