Lock-in Thermography (3rd Ed., 3rd ed. 2018)
Basics and Use for Evaluating Electronic Devices and Materials

Springer Series in Advanced Microelectronics Series, Vol. 10


Language: Anglais

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321 p. · 15.5x23.5 cm · Hardback
This is the first book on lock-in thermography, an analytical method applied to the diagnosis of microelectronic devices. This useful introduction and guide reviews various experimental approaches to lock-in thermography, with special emphasis on the lock-in IR thermography developed by the authors themselves.


1. Introduction


2. Physical and Technical Basics

2.1 IR Thermography Basics

2.2 The Lock-in Principle and its Digital Realization

2.3 Lock-in Thermography

2.4 Timing Strategies

2.5 Influence of Non-Harmonic Heating

2.6 Noise Analysis

2.7. Calibration

2.8 Heat Dissipation and Transport Mechanisms in Solar Cells

2.9 Carrier Density Imaging


3. Experimental Technique

3.1 Different (Lock-in) Thermography Realizations

3.2 Commercial Lock-in Thermography Systems

3.3 Illumination Systems

3.4 Solid Immersion Lenses

3.5. Realization of CDI/ILM Systems

3.5.1. Absorption Mode

3.5.2. Emission Mode

3.5.3. Lifetime Calibration


4. Theory

4.1 Influence of the Heat Conduction to the Surrounding

4.2 Temperature Drift Compensation

4.3 Thermal Waves of Point Sources

4.4 Thermal Waves of Extended Sources

4.5 The Quantitative Interpretation of Lock-in Thermograms

4.5.1 The Image Integration / Proportionality Method

4.5.2 Deconvolution of Lock-in Thermograms


5. Measurement Strategies

5.1 Which Signal Should be Displayed?

5.2 Influence of the Lock-in Frequency

5.3 Influence of the IR Emissivity

5.4 Influence of the Peltier Effect


6. Typical Applications

6.1 Integrated Circuits

6.1.1 3D Analysis

6.1.2 IC-Tester Controlled LIT

6.2 Solar Cells

6.2.1 Dark Lock-in Thermography (DLIT) Shunt Imaging High-current DLIT Series Resistance Imaging (RESI) Ideality Factor and Saturation Current Mapping Local I-V curves measured Thermally (LIVT) Reverse-bias DLIT Temperature Coefficient and Slope Imaging DLIT-based Jsc Imaging Local I-V Evaluation LIT and Luminescence Imaging: Comprehensive Loss Analysis

6.2.2 Illuminated Lock-in Thermography (ILIT) Voc-ILIT Jsc-ILIT Rs-ILIT Avalanche Multiplication Factor Imaging (MF-ILIT) ILIT-Based Efficiency Imaging ILIT-Based Jsc Imaging Suns ILIT

6.2.3 Summary of Solar Cell Applications

6.3 Failure Analysis of Solar Modules

6.3.1 Differential ILIT Techniques

6.3.2 Solar Cell Analysis in Modules (SCAM)

6.4 Spin Caloritronics

6.5 CDI/ILM on Solar Materials

6.5.1 Analysis of Material Evaluation During Processing

6.5.1 Temperature-Dependent Measurements

6.5.3 Trap Density Images from CDI/ILM


7. Summary and Outlook



Appendix: Thermal and IR Properties of Selected Materials

List of Symbols



Describes an imaging technique for the evaluation of materials and electronic devices

Discusses various new application fields of lock-in thermography

Is useful as a reference work for researchers and engineers alike

Includes both silicon and gallium nitride materials